The big five personality factor model is a relatively robust general model for assessing differences in individual personality, based on factorial analysis of personality tests. The model divides personality traits into five broad dimensions, which are conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, extraversion and openness to experience.
A general outline for a division of five distinguishable personality traits was first proposed by William McDougall in 1932 in the journal Character and Personality, and has since developed into the advanced theoretical framework it is today.
Source: Digman, John M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology 41.1: 417–440