Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing Framework

The levels of processing framework proposed by Fergus I.M. Craig and Robert S. Lockhart in 1972, refers to three levels of encoding any information: visual encoding (concerned with visual stimuli), phonemic encoding (concerned with visual and auditory stimuli) and semantic encoding (concerned with meaning). Shallow processing, (visual and phonemic processing), leads to a fragile memory trace that is susceptible to rapid decay, and deep processing (semantic processing) results in a more durable memory trace.