Levels-of-processing Effect or Levels of Processing Theory

The levels-of-processing effect is a term coined by Robert S. Lockhart and Fergus I. M. Craik in 1972, and refers to the apparent fact that information that is processed at a deeper level is remembered more easily.


Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684