Overview of psychological concepts

A

Abnormal Psychology – Absolute Threshold – Action Potential Propagation – Activation-Synthesis Theory of Dreaming – Activity Theory – Ad Hominem Fallacy – Adjustment Disorder or Situational Disorder – Adler, Alfred – Adlerian Psychotherapy – Adult – Attachment Interview (AAI) – Aerial Perspective – Affirming the Consequent – Aggression – Agnosia – Agoraphobia – Ainsworth, Mary – Akinetopsia or Motion Blindness – Albert Bandura’s Social Child Development Theory – Alcoholism – Alfred Adler, Ken Cramer – Algorithm – Allostasis – Altruism – Ames Room – Analogy – Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) – Anchoring or Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic – Animus and Anima – Anorexia Nervosa – Anosognosia – Anthropological Linguistics – Antisocial Personality Disorder – Anxiety – Anxiety Disorders – Aphasia – Apophenia – Appeal to Hypocrisy Fallacy – Applied Behaviour Analysis – Approach-avoidance Conflict – Archetypes – Arithmetic Mean – Art Therapy – Artificial Intelligence – Assertiveness Training or Assertion Training – Assimilation – Atkinson and Shiffrin Modal Model of Human Memory – Attachment Q-set – Attachment Theory – Attachment-Focused Therapy – Attention – Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – Attitude Accessibility – Attitude Polarization or Belief Polarization – Attitudes – Attribution Theory – Audience Effects – Auditory Hallucinations – Autism – Autokinetic effect or Autokinesis – Automatic Processing and Multi-tasking – Automaticity – Autonomic Nervous System – Availability Heuristic – Aversion Therapy – Avoidance Learning – Avoidant Personality Disorder

B
Backward Inhibition Effect – Baddely and Hitch Model of Working Memory – Bandura, Albert – Baragnosis – Base Rate Fallacy – Beck, Aaron T. – Behaviour Analysis – Behavioural Activation – Behavioural Decision Theory – Behavioural Ecology – Behavioural Economics – Behavioural Genetics – Behavioural Medicine – Behavioural Neurology – Behaviourism – Bekhterev, Vladimir – Belongingness Hypothesis – Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test – Beneficence Principle – Berne, Eric – Binet, Alfred – Binocular cues – Biofeedback – Biological Psychology or Physiological Psychology – Biology of Stress – Bion, Wilfred – Biopsychosocial Model – Bipolar Disorders – Blindsight – Blood Brain Barrier – Bobo Doll Experiment – Body Dysmorphic Disorder – Borderline Personality Disorder – Bottom-up and Top-down Processing – Bowlby, John – Breuer, Josef – Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas – Bruner, Jerome – Bugental, James – Bulimia Nervosa – Bullying – Bystander Effect

 

C
Case Studies – Catatonia – Categorical Approaches to Classification of Mental Disorders – Categories of Emotions – Categorization – Catharsis – Central Limit Theorem – Central Nervous System – Central Tendency – Centration – Change Blindness – Child Directed Speech or Caretaker Speech –  Childhood Amnesia or Infantile Amnesia – Choice Blindness – Chomsky, Noam – Cialdini, Robert – Cinderella Effect – Circadian Rhythms – Classical Conditioning – Classification and Diagnosis – Clever Hans – Clinical Psychology – Closure Principle – Coaction Effects – Cocktail Party Effect – Cognition – Cognitive Appraisal Theory or Cognitive Evaluation Theory – Cognitive Archaeology – Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cognitive Contagion – Cognitive Development – Cognitive Dissonance – Cognitive Map – Cognitive Neuropsychology – Cognitive Neuroscience – Cognitive Psychology – Cognitive Rehearsal – Cognitive Restructuring – Cognitive Style – Cognitive Triad – Collective Unconscious or Objective Psyche – Colour Blindness – Community Psychology – Comorbidity – Comparative Neuropsychology – Comparative Psychology – Concept Formation or Concept Learning – Concrete Operational Stage – Conditioning – Confirmation Bias – Conformity – Confounding Variable – Congruence – Conservation – Constructivism – Constructivist Theory of Learning – Consumer Psychology – Content Analysis – Context-dependent Cues – Contextual Effects – Contingencies of Self-worth – Correlation – Correlation Coefficient – Counselling Psychology – Counter-attitudinal Advocacy – Couples Therapy – Covert Sensitization – Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing Framework – Creativity – Criminal Psychology or Forensic psychology – Critical Incident Stress Debriefing – Cross-cultural Psychology – Crowd psychology or Mob Psychology – Crystallized Intelligence and Fluid Intelligence – Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly – Cultural Psychology – Cyberpsychology – Cyclopean Stimulus – Cyclothymia or Cyclothymic Disorder

 

D
Damasio, Antonio – de Bono, Edward – Declarative Memory or Explicit Memory – Deductive Reasoning – Defense Mechanisms – Deindividuation – Deja Vu – Delusional – Disorder – Denial – Dependent Personality Disorder – Depersonalization – Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder or Depersonalization-derealization Syndrome – Depression – Depressive Realism – Depth Perception – Depth Psychology – Dereflection – Desensitization – Developmental Psychology – Dewey, John – Diathesis-Stress Model – Differential Psychology – Dimensional Approach to Classification of Mental Disorders – Discursive Psychology – Displacement Activity – Display Rules – Dissociation – Dissociative Disorders – Dissociative Identity Disorder – Divergent Thinking – Double – Blind Experimental Design – Drive-reduction Theories of Motivation – Dual Code Theory – Dunning Kruger Effect – Dutton and Aron Suspension Bridge Experiment – Dyslexia – Dysthymia or Persistent Depressive Disorder

 

E

Eating Disorders – Ebbinghaus Illusion or Titchener Circles Illusion – Ebbinghaus, Hermann – Ecological Psychology – Ecological Systems TheoryEducational Psychology – Ego Depletion or Cognitive Depletion – Ehrenstein Illusion – Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) – Electroencephalography (EEG) – Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’ Five Stages of Grief – Ellis, Albert – Emotion – Emotion Regulation – Emotional Contagion – Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS) – Emotional Intelligence – Empty Chair Technique – Endowment Effect – Erikson, Erik H. – Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development – Ethics of Psychological Experiments – Ethnopsychology – Ethology – Evolutionary Developmental Psychology – Evolutionary Psychology – Executive Functions – Existential Psychology – Existential-humanistic Psychotherapy – Exner Scoring System or Rorschach Comprehensive System – Expectancy-value Theory of Motivation – Experience-expectant Learning – Experiental Learning Theory – Experiment or Experimental Method – Experimental Psychology – Exposure and Response Prevention – Exposure Therapy – Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery – Eysenck, Hans

 

F

Facial Action Coding System – Facial Feedback Hypothesis – Factor Analysis – False Belief Test – False Dichotomy or False Dilemma – False Memories – Family Therapy – Fast Mapping – Feature Theories of Perception – Fechner, Gustav – Feminist Therapy – Festinger and Carlsmith Study, Cognitive Dissonance – Field Experiments – Flicker-fusion Frequency – Flow – Folk Psychology or Common Sense Psychology – Forer Effect or Barnum Effect – Forgetting – Formal Operational Stage – Framing Effects – Frankl, Viktor – Freud, Sigmund – Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory – Freud’s Psychosexual Stages – Freuds’ Theory of Personality – Fromm, Erich – Fully Functioning Person – Functional Fixedness – Functionalism – Functionalism and Structuralism – Fundamental Attribution Error or Person Bias – Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation

 

G

Gage, Phineas – Galatea EffectGambler’s Fallacy – Garcia and Koelling Taste Aversion Experiment – Garcia Effect or Conditioned Taste Aversion – Gardner, Howard – Gender Roles – General Adaptation Syndrome – Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Generative Grammar – Gestalt Psychology – Gestalt Psychology Principles – Gestalt Therapy – Golem Effect – Goleman, Daniel – Grey Square Illusion or Checker Shadow Illusion – Grounded Cognition – Group Polarization – Groupthink

 

H

Habituation – Hallucinations – Halo Effect – Harlow’s Studies on Attachment – Harm Reduction Therapy – Hawthorne Effect – Health Psychology – Hebb, Donald O. – Heider and Simmel Study of Apparent Behaviour – Hemispheric Specialization – Heredity – Heritability – Hermann Grid Illusion – Heuristics – High-level Perception – Higher-order Conditioning or Second-order Conditioning – Highway Hypnosis – Hindsight Bias or the “I-knew-it-all-along” EffectHistrionic Personality DisorderHot-Seat Technique – Hull, Clarke L. – Human Factors Psychology – Humanistic Psychology – Hyperbolic DiscountingHypochondria – Hypothesis Testing

 

I

Id, Ego and Superego – Illusory Motion or Illusion of Motion – Imaginary Audience – Implicit and Explicit Memory – Implicit Association Test – Impossible Crate Illusion – Imprinting – Incentive Theories of Motivation – Incongruence – Independent Variable, Dependent Variable – Individual Psychology – Individuation – Inductive Reasoning – Industrial and Organizational Psychology – Inferential Statistics – Information Processing – Infrahumanization – Insight Learning – Insomnia – Intelligence – Intelligence Quotient or IQ – Intelligence Testing – Intensive Exposure Therapy or Flooding – Interactive Activation Model – Intergroup Bias – Intermittent Explosive Disorder – Interpersonal Attraction – Introjection – Inverting Goggles Experiment

 

J

James-Lange Theory of Emotion – James, William – Jigsaw Classroom – Johari Window – Jung, Carl Gustav – Jungian Self – Just Noticeable Difference – Just World Hypothesis or Belief in a Just World – Just World Scale

 

K

Kahneman, Daniel – KIDCOPE – Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development – Kohut, Heinz – Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory – Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth – Kuleshov Effect

 

L

Lacan, Jaques – Language – Language Acquisition – Language Acquisition Device – Language of Thought Hypothesis – Latent Learning – Law of Effect – Law of Exercise – Law of Large Numbers – Lazarus and Folkman Transactional Model of Stress and Coping – Lazarus, Arnold – Learned Helplessness – Learning – Learning Disorders – LeDoux, Joseph – Legal Psychology – Levels of Conversation – Levels-of-processing Effect or Levels of Processing Theory – Levine, Stephen – Lewin, Kurt – Light Therapy or Phototherapy – Linguistic Encoding – Little Albert Experiment – Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex – Locus of Control – Loftus, Elizabeth – Logic Theorist – Logotherapy – Long-term Memory – Long-term Memory (LTM) and Working Memory – Looking Glass Self – Looming or Retinal Expansion – Lorenz, Konrad – Love Styles or the Colour Wheel of Love

 

M

Magical Thinking – Magnitude Estimation – Marshmallow Experiment – Maslow, Abraham – Masochism – Matching Hypothesis or Matching Phenomenon – Mathematical Psychology – Matthew Effect – May, Rollo – McGurk Effect – Median – MemoryMemory, Types of – Mental Age – Mental Imagery – Mental Retardation – Mentalese – Mere Exposure Effect – Method of Loci Technique – Microexpressions – Milgram Experiment on Obedience to Authority Figures – Miller, Geoffrey – Milner, Brenda – Minsky, Marvin – Mirror Neurons – Mirror Self Recognition Test or Rouge Test – Misinformation Effect – Mnemonics – Mode – Modelling – Mood Disorders – Moral Disengagement – Moral Psychology – Morgan’s Canon – Morpheme – Motion Induced Blindness – Motion Parallax – Motivation – Motivational Interviewing – Multi Sensory Memory Processing – Multi-store Models of Memory – Multiaxial Classification of Mental Disorders, DSM-V – Multidimensional Family Therapy – Multiple Intelligences – Multivariate Experiment – Müller-Lyer Illusion – Münchausen Syndrome

 

N

Narcissistic Personality Disorder – Naturalistic Fallacy or Appeal to Nature – Negative Correlation – Neighbourhood Activation Model – Neobehaviourism – Neuroeconomics – Neuroplasticity – Neuropsychological Evaluation – Neuropsychology – Neurosis – Neurotransmission or Synaptic Transmission – Neurotransmitter Reuptake – Nocebo Effect – Nonverbal Performance Tests – Norm of Reciprocity

 

O

Object Permanence – Object Relations Clinical Theory – Object Relations Psychotherapy – Observational Learning – Observations – Observer Expectancy Effect – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder – Occupational Health Psychology – Oedipal Complex – Oneirophrenia or Oneirism – Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning – Operational Definition Opponent Process Theory of Emotion – Optimism Bias – Outgroup Homogeneity Effect – Overconfidence Effect – Overjustification Effect

 

P

P-value – Panic Attacks – Panic Disorder – Paranoid Personality Disorder – Parent Management Training – Parent-Effects Model – Parenting Styles – Parsing – Perception – Perceptual Constancies – Perceptual Development – Peripheral Nervous System – Perls, Fritz – Person Centered Therapy or Client-centered Therapy – Person Environment Fit – Person Perception – Personality Disorders – Personality Psychology – Persuasion – Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Phi Phenomenon – Philosophical Anthropology – Phobias – PhonemePhonemic Restoration Effect – Phonological Loop – Phrenology or Cranioscopy – Physiognomy – Piaget, Jean – Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development – Picture Superiority Effect – Pidgin – Pinker, Steven – Placebo Effect – Poggendorff Illusion – Political Psychology – Ponzo Illusion – Populations and Samples – Positive and Negative Reinforcement – Positive Correlation – Positive Psychology – Positive Unconditional Regard – Post-traumatic Stress Disorder – Pratfall Effect – Prejudice – Preoperational Stage – Primal Therapy – Priming – Principle of TotalityPrisoner’s DilemmaProbabilityProjective Identification – Projective Tests – Propinquity Effect – Prospect Theory – Proximity Principle – Psychoanalysis – Psychodrama – PsycholinguisticsPsychometricsPsychoneuroimmunology – Psychophysical Isomorphism – Psychophysics – Psychotic Depression – Puzzle Box – Pygmalion Effect or Rosenthal Effect

 

Q

Q Methodology – Quantitative Data Analysis

 

R

Random Sampling – Rational Emotive Therapy or Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy – Rationality – Reciprocal Inhibition – Red Herring Fallacy – Reflection – Reflex Arc – Reinforcement and Punishment – Reliability – Representativeness Heuristic – Repression – Researcher Bias – Resilience – Reward Erosion – Robbers Cave Study – Rogers, Carl – Rorschach Test or Rorschach Inkblot Test – Rorschach, Hermann – Rosenhan’s Pseudopatient Experiment – Rubin’s Vase or Rubin’s Figure

 

S

Sacks, Oliver – Sadism – Sally Anne Test – Sample Variance – Sampling – Sampling Errors – Sampling Methods – Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis or Linguistic Realitivity Hypothesis – Scale Error – Scales of Measurement – Schachter’s Affiliation Experiments – Schedules of Reinforcement – Schemas or Schemata – Schizophrenia – Schizotypal Personality Disorder – School Psychology – Scintillating Grid Illusion – Seasonal Affective Disorder – Selective Attention – Self Concept – Self Determination Theory – Self Esteem – Self Illusory Bias – Self Report Methods – Self-efficacy – Self-harm – Seligman, Martin – Selye, Hans – Sensation and Perception – Sensitive and Critical Periods – Sensorimotor Stage – Sensory Homunculus – Sensory Integration – Sensory Memory – Sensory Systems – Serial Position Effect – Shaping – Shepard’s Tables Illusion – Similarity Principle – Simon, Herbert – Simulation Heuristic – Size Constancy – Skinner Box Experiments or Operant – Chamber Experiments – Skinner, Burrhus Frederic – Sleep Deprivation – Sleep Stages – Slippery Slope Fallacy – Social Anxiety Disorder or Social Phobia – Social Cognitive Theory – Social Desirability Bias – Social Emotional Development – Social Identity Theory – Social Learning Theory – Social Loafing or Ringelmann Effect – Social Psychology – Social Referencing – Sociometer Theory – Socratic Questioning – Solomon Asch – Conformity Experiments – Solution Focused Therapy – Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems – Somatoform Disorders or Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders – Spearman, Charles – Split Brain Experiments – Split-brain Patients – Sport Psychology – Standard Deviation – Standards for Psychological Tests – Stanford Prison Experiment – Statistical Significance – Stereotype Threat – Stereotypes – Stick and Banana Insight Experiment – Still Face Experiment – Stockholm Syndrome – Strange Situation Procedure – Straw Man Fallacy – Stress – Structuralism – Subjective Validation – Substance-Related Disorders – Summation Notation or Sigma Notation – Surveys and Survey Design – Sympathy Breakthrough – Synchronicity – Synesthesia – Systematic Desensitization or Graded Exposure – Systems Psychology

 

Take-the-best Heuristic – Task-switching ExperimentsTest ReliabilityTesting Effect or Retrieval Practice Effect – Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy – The ABC Model – The Rubber Hand Illusion – The Scientific Method – Thematic Apperception Test – Theories of Learning – Theories of Motivation and Emotions – Theories of Personality – Theory – Theory of Contiguity – Theory of Mind – Theory of Psychological Reactance – Thought Block – Tolman, Edward C. – Tourette Syndrome – Trait Psychology – Transactional Analysis – Triarchic Theory of Intelligence – Tulving, Endel – Turing Test – Turing, Alan – Twin Studies – Type I and Type II Errors

 

U

Universal Grammar

 

V

Validity – Validity Testing – Validity, Types of – Variability – Variables, Types of – Variance Sum Law – Ventriloquist Effect – Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy – Vision – Visual Cliff Experiment – Visualisation or Mental Rehearsal – Von Restorff Effect or Isolation effect or Novelty Effect – Vygotsky, Lev

 

W

Watson, John B. – Wearing, Clive – Word Superiority Effect

 

Y

Yerkes-Dodson Law

 

Z

Zimbardo, Philip – Zone of Proximal Development