The representativeness heuristic was identified by Tversky and Kahneman, in relation to estimating the probability of an event. Subjects have a tendency to estimate the probability of an event based on available data. This heuristic can lead to error, as the available data may not be representative of the actual probability of the event.
Kahneman, S., Tversky O. (Eds.) (1982). “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases“. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.